That’s a wrap

When building, we need to wrap or protect most of the lumber, while leaving a portion exposed so that the wood may be allowed to ìbreatheî or basically expel moisture at a more natural rate. Postmedia Network

I think the inventors of Baggies sandwich bags, and Saran Wrap, are two of the most intelligent and opportunist people in the world. Intelligent because they’ve managed to develop a lightweight, flexible, and user friendly manner of sealing and protecting foodstuffs. Opportunists because they’ve not only developed something useful, but have enabled us, as humans, to fulfill one of our most instinctive and powerful needs, and that’s the simple desire of wanting to wrap things.

What do we do with a newborn baby? Although it’s referred to as a swaddle, we’re essentially wrapping ‘em. Bloody finger? Wrap it. Christmas gifts, sprained ankle, hole in the car’s muffler? Wrap, wrap, wrap.

After supper the other night, I wrapped or bagged 10 different leftover items and tossed them in the fridge. Approximately 50 per cent of these items will see action in the immediate future, two to three things might be caught in time for use, with the last one or two items forgotten and allowed to develop into 15 types of mold. Regardless, they were all good wraps.

What do we do with a staff meeting that’s gone 30 minutes into overtime? We wrap it up. So, what do we do with basically any wood project or structure? Well, if you’re still not sure as to the theme of this week’s rant, for the good of the wood, you wrap it. For all intents and purposes, plywoods, basic framework, and wooden posts, will stick around for the long term if they’re kept dry. The strategy to keeping wood dry in a four season climate such as ours is challenging because wood is a product that naturally absorbs moisture. So, with a “dry season” unfortunately not forming part of the four seasons we experience, our plywoods and 2×4 framing lumber are always in a state where they’re retaining some level of humidity, regardless of the fact the lumber was kiln dried at some point in its production. As a result, we can’t simply saran wrap every piece of lumber because that would trap the humidity, which would lead to our lumber looking like the aforementioned science experiment regarding the 15 types of mold. Instead, we need to wrap or protect most of the lumber, while leaving a portion of the plywood or lumber exposed (with these exposed sides usually facing the interior of the building) so that the wood may be allowed to “breathe” or basically expel moisture at a more natural rate.

So, whether you’re building a shed, or 3000 sq. ft. home, we always protect the plywood walls with a house wrap. Because the interior, or what’s referred to as the warm side of a standard, insulated wall, must have a plastic vapor barrier, in order to prevent moisture from entering the wall cavity, the outside wall cannot be saran wrapped, or covered in the same manner, because that would trap the moisture already in the plywood, and stud framework. So, we cover the exterior wall with a house wrap, a product that sheds water, should rain or snow makes its way past the siding, but is still porous enough to allow the wood to breathe.

Our plywood roofs require the same type of protection. Although asphalt paper was for the longest time the product of choice, synthetic felts are the better product. Similar to a house wrap, synthetic roof felts shed water and breathe. However, they differ from house wraps in that they reflect UV light, and are far superior to paper felts because they can protect a roof for up to six months, which is a real bonus when inclement weather causes unforeseen delays.

Other areas in need of protection are the wooden framework around windows and doors. When the caulking around a window or door frame begins to shrink or crack, water infiltrates into the wall and puddles on the sill, leading to mold or rot. For this reason, we now wrap three out of the four sides of the wooden frames with a rubberized membrane.

Next week, more on wraps. Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

Window options

Installing new windows is never a bad idea but there are a few things to consider. Postmedia Network

My new pick-up truck comes with a manual the size of a New York City phonebook, explaining the roughly 500 electronic display and movable part options that are all designed to make my driving life more comfortable.

Including the heated seats, automatic windows, and time delayed windshield wipers, I have a pretty good grasp of about five of these 500 computer advancements. I did, however, participate in the 60-minute orientation lesson regarding these options, well . . . actually, I cut the deliberations short by about 50 minutes, mostly because I find modern electronic type conversations tiresome, and all I really needed to know was how to access the spare tire. So, I’m really the owner of a regular pick-up, with incredible potential.

Does my lack of adaptability somewhat reduce the value of all these personalized and voice recognition type options? Perhaps, but only until which time a more computer savvy, 25-year-old gets behind the wheel.

Windows are like automobiles, in that there are several options, or upgrades to choose from after deciding on either a casement, horizontal slider, or guillotine, base style unit. And, like a car option, some of these window options will deliver a more efficient, better performing window, while other options may simply enhance the looks. Because I value heated seats over fiery decals (isn’t aging a bummer) I lean towards those upgrades that provide real value.

In general, today’s CSA certified windows provide decent efficiency. So, even though a casement style of window will deliver better results than a horizontal slider on the national A440 test, with this test measuring a window’s performance in relation to air, water, and wind pressure, a new window, regardless of style, is a good renovation decision every time.

So, if the difference in window style performance is somewhat negligible, then what can we add to a base model window to make it better? Start with the glass. A standard thermal pane with Low-E glass delivers an R-value of 3.85, which when compared with your 15-20 year old existing window, is pretty impressive.

However, those numbers would never steal the headline from Donald Trump during a Wolf Blitzer situation room scrum. With the cost of heating fuel steadily on the rise, paying for a better thermal unit is definitely money well spent.

How do we make a thermal pane better? By adding more glass, essentially upgrading from a standard dual pane, to a triple pane unit. And, by adding more layers of Low-E film, going from one to four layers of this clear, energy saving coating. Now we’re talking about a glass unit that provides R 7.87 of thermal value (get Blitzer on the line). With 25 ;per cent of a home’s heat lost through the panes of glass, doubling the usual efficiency of your thermal panes will generate huge savings.

Next, eliminate any trace of wood. If you’re a lover of all things wood, then enjoy your wood kitchen table, wooden chairs, the purchasing of wood carvings, or join a Saturday morning arts and craft club that specializes in wooden stir stick creations, but avoid wood windows, or wood framing around your windows, like you would the plague. Simply put, wood sashes and wood jamb buildouts, will over time, disappoint.

Instead, choose a vinyl or aluminum clad window, with most importantly, a vinyl sill and buildout that extends the full depth of the wall. Window maintenance is something you want to avoid, and with several interior cladding colors to choose from, the value of a PVC finished jamb extension is worth every penny.

What option might a window purchaser avoid? Grills in the thermal pane. Colonial type window grills can look quite stylish, until misfortune leads to a cracked glass or thermal seal failure. Due to most companies having a lifetime warranty on the window, the challenge lies not in replacing the glass, but matching a grill molding that may have changed over the years. So, save yourself the headache of this fiasco, and order your windows with clear thermal pane units.

Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

How to buy a window

When installing windows, try to avoid the inserts and replace the whole thing. Postmedia Network

Whether you’re replacing an existing window, or buying windows for your future home, the process involved in choosing a type of window, along with the desired finish and depth of frame, is basically the same.

The only difference will be the sizing, whereby a new window going into the space of a window scheduled for termination, will of course have to conform to the existing parameters of this space.

What about insert windows? And are they a viable option? Insert windows are like fast food restaurants, in that they’re seemingly convenient at the time, but a choice you inevitably end up hating yourself for afterwards. An insert window refers more to the install strategy than any actual style of window. Essentially, they’re either a casement, guillotine, or slider type of window with a narrower, 3-1/4 inch frame.

The insert strategy has the contractor removing only the moving parts of the old window, or basically the sash and perhaps a few track moldings, leaving the frame of the old window intact. The replacement, or insert window, is then positioned in this remaining space. The insert strategy is convenient because the narrow, 3-1/4” depth of this unit, permits the installer to set the unit permanently in position with the use of a couple of quarter round moldings, and a tube of caulking. Unfortunately, like a trip through the fast food drive-through, the tummy ache to purchasing an insert window comes shortly afterwards.

Although the insert strategy satisfies the need for new glass panes, it does nothing to remedy the air infiltration issue surrounding the existing window frame, or rectify an often hidden water penetration (most likely causing mold) situation, or fix the general deterioration of the existing framework and interior moldings. Essentially, you’ve replaced an energy loser, that being the existing glass, with another energy loser, that being the new thermal pane, with a very marginal gain in energy-saving performance. Plus, the insert strategy has you basically placing a window inside of another window, which results in a slight forfeiture in natural light, never a good thing.

Finally, although an insert offers the convenience of requiring only a bead of caulking on the exterior to somewhat complete the installation, the old, existing frame often gets left as is, which looks lousy. Or, the old frame gets covered with aluminum, which is effective, and looks slightly less lousy, but has the home basically screaming at each passerby, “Hey! My owner was too cheap to replace my windows properly, so please don’t judge”. Essentially, the insert strategy disappoints.
So, when it comes to replacing an existing window, avoid this quick-fix alternative of an insert, and instead, choose the strategy of complete window replacement. Window style options include the casement (crank-out), guillotine (single or double hung), and horizontal slider. Fourth and fifth options include awning windows, which are basically casement windows that are hinged at the top, as opposed to the sides, and fixed windows, which are inoperable panes of glass that sit in the same, identical frame as your other functioning windows. Fixed windows have a purpose in that they’re more efficient than their working counterparts, and require zero maintenance, due to the lack of moving parts. Plus, and because it’s not necessary that every window in the home be operational, fixed windows offer the option of large, unobstructed viewing. So, don’t dismiss the value of a fixed window.

Awning windows, on the other hand, have limited value because the operating mechanism allows it to open to about 50 per cent of its potential. Plus, with the sash hinged at the top of the window frame, and the crank-out mechanism stretching out from the bottom of the frame in an accordion type manner, escape via an awning window during an emergency type of situation, would be challenging, if not impossible. As a result, its placement in most cases is limited to over the kitchen sink, or some first story bathroom.

Next week, which type of window will best serve most homeowner’s.

Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

A handful of reasons to change your windows

Windows

One, they’re old.

I drive a 15-year-old sports car during the summer months. Why? Because its purchase seemed like a good idea at the time.

Basically, it’s hard on gas, develops a shimmer at about 50 km/h, and isn’t near as comfortable as my newer pickup truck. Essentially, the appeal of such a vehicle is limited to the retractable roof, which seemed pretty cool at the time, until one realizes that driving in air-conditioned comfort, while still being able to hear the radio, is probably more relaxing.

So, if your window is 15 years of age or older, I can guarantee you it’s tired and has forfeited not only its efficiency, but its will to operate.

Two, you can’t see out of them from Dec. 1 to March 15.

Condensation between the thermal panes, or frosty windows, aren’t factors that necessarily demand a complete window overhaul. Glass panes can be replaced, while the issue of thermal panes “sweating” due to high humidity issues, then frosting up on those really cold days, can be solved with a mechanical air system.

However, a broken seal, often blamed on a pigeon’s confused fight pattern, or the little baseball touting rascal next door, is more often the sign of an unstable frame or sash.

While frosty glass was once a common occurrence, today’s high-efficiency glass panels, no matter what the temperature outside, and no matter how much pasta mamma has on the burner, rarely condensate up the pane more than an inch or so.

Three, the windows no longer open.

Somewhat related to the age issue, window sashes that are either painted shut, or are so stubborn to open they require the homeowner preparing themselves with the same 15-minute warmup used by Olympic weightlifters. If the herculean feat required to open your double-hung window may risk igniting your sciatic nerve issues, are definitely past the rescue stage.

Four, a cool draft curls around your toes, then sweeps up and grabs you by the wazoo every time you step out of the shower.

Some people believe drafts to be a somewhat effective means of getting fresh air into the home. They’re the same folks that anxiously wait for the Easter bunny and Santa Claus to show up every year.

Drafts signify cold, outside air, infiltrating the home envelope, eventually meeting up with the warm, inside air. When cold meets warm, you get condensation.

With condensation comes mold, and with mold comes poor air quality, leading to colds and sniffles that last all winter long.

Every home can benefit from continued fresh air being circulated throughout. However, the answer to a fresh-air source can’t be you depending on the lack of insulation and caulking surrounding your windows and doors, or the lack of weather-stripping on your window sashes, or the fact the sash is warped, and no longer sits tightly within the window frame.

The solution to fresh air and consistent humidity levels will be an HRV (heat-recovery ventilation) unit. The answer to drafts is a newly installed window, properly insulated with spray foam and sealed with a quality exterior caulking.

And five, you’re getting older.

Regardless of the fact we heat our homes in the winter, cool them in the summer, and have mechanical systems to control the air quality and humidity levels, sometimes it’s just nice to be able to open a window.

When you’re young, this doesn’t present much of a challenge.

When you’re a little older, leaning over the kitchen sink in order to tug that sliding sash over will put your lower back in a very vulnerable position. Single and double-hung, guillotine-styled units, can also be challenging if they no longer function smoothly.

Unless you can get your hips tight up against the window sill, what’s equivalent to about a 50-pound barbell curl will definitely cause some strain.

Answer?
Consider the more user friendly casement window.

Next week, how to buy a window.

Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

Inevitable roof moss

Some things are inevitable.

Every time I watch a movie called Titanic, the ship always sinks. Just the other day, I caught the 1997 version of “Titanic” about midway through the movie. Even though I’ve watched this same film about five times, albeit in portions, I still held hope that maybe the ship wouldn’t sink this time. But it did. You would have thought Captain E.J. Smith could have avoided that darn iceberg, since it hadn’t moved in 20 years, while Leonardo DiCaprio still managed to slip into the frigid ocean waters and die, after once again failing to find a half decent floatation device to support both he and Kate Winslet.

Spring and fall in our part of the world means our local weather reporters need only to remember three words when describing what atmospheric conditions we all have to look forward to in the morning, them being “wet and cloudy”.

If you own an asphalt or cedar shake roof, then persistent wet and cloudy conditions will lead to moss and algae growth, it’s inevitable. Moss and algae are basically plants. As a result, they require everything a plant needs to survive, including plenty of water, relative shade, a sprinkle of sunshine, and a reliable food source, or basically, the exact environment provided by the average roof in any one of our three united counties. Moss and algae differ from regular plant life in that they have no roots. However, they stick really well to practically any non-metallic surface, and once established, will do what plants and all living organisms do, and that’s multiply. Moss and algae are basically esthetic issues, whereby in mild cases, their appearance is worse than their bite. However, if allowed to persist, moss will grow in between the shingle tabs, loosening the necessary bond between these tabs, creating a path in which water could infiltrate into the plywood below.

When that happens, you get a roof leak, with the only solution to this problem being total roof shingle replacement. Unfortunately, knowing why moss exists on our roofs, doesn’t make avoiding or preventing it from happening any easier. The problem is the huge iceberg, which in this case represents our very accommodating environment. Temporary solutions to eliminating moss are those related to either cleaning or scrubbing the moss off the roof. The same type of bleach, ammonia, or regular home cleaning soaps that would be effective in cleaning mold, would be effective in removing moss. Roof, siding, and deck cleaners are also available on the shelves of your local building supply centers. The only issue of course is that your moss problem is situated on a roof, which is not only sloped, but has a granular surface that could become loose with basic foot traffic. Slope plus loose granular surface plus a 16-24 foot drop that leads to a sudden stop equals not having to worry about your moss problem anymore.

So, unless you own the same type of roof harness worn by professional roofers, I recommend avoiding that climb up the extension ladder. Besides, cleansers can be a little harsh on your plant and garden beds below.

What about pressure washing? Bad idea. Pressure washing from ground level will separate your shingle tabs and drive water underneath, basically achieving in minutes what will take your moss years to accomplish. Pressure washing from above is also not recommended because you’ll loosen the granular surface, again, aging your roof unnecessarily. Essentially, you’ve got to melt the iceberg, which means changing the environment. This can be accomplished by installing a strip of zinc banding just under the roof capping, or first row of shingles near the peak of the roof. Perform this task in warm weather, enabling you to more easily bend back the shingle tab. When it rains, tiny particles of zinc get washed down over the shingles. Zinc is poisonous to moss and algae, so in time, the moss will loosen up and fall off. Good moss fighting.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

Nothing simple about this standard

Keep it simple! Those were the bold words expressed to a supplier by the chairman of our negotiating committee as we were discussing a pricing and rebate program some years ago.

This fellow, the owner of 24 lumberyards across Western Canada, was probably the most intelligent person in the room. Regardless, his goal was to negotiate the simplest program possible, something your average fourth grader would understand. He has since retired, sold lock, stock, and barrel, then built himself and his family an ocean front home in Hawaii. Now that’s keeping life simple.

Perhaps it’s being a little selfish, but I wish this fellow had delayed his retirement and been given the task of running the MMA (Ministry of Municipal Affairs). At issue is the MMA’s Supplementary Standard SB-12 for 2017. I refer to it as Supplementary Bullcrap-12, due to the fact my lack of education prevents me from fully comprehending what exactly is being asked and specified in this new for 2017 insulating home initiative.

From what I can decipher, and based on such factors as heating systems, window efficiency, floor design, number of levels, whether you have two to three cats in the house, and your preferred brand of beer, there are between six and 13 manners in which to strategically insulate a home.

I use the term strategic because even within the parameters of the SB-12 compliances, there exist sub-manners of install, based on whether these particular areas will be regarded as finished areas, storage, or simply open.

So, when my limited intelligence prevents me from understanding a concept being presented, I naturally seek the aid of someone more educated. My question was simple, and related directly to the proper and allowable use of sheeting tape and vapor barrier on a finished concrete basement wall. First I spoke with a building engineer, who gave me his interpretation of the standards, and as such, related to me his preferred method of install. “OK, I accept your interpretation”, I said, “but based on the various scenarios I was presenting, what was the rule? There’s got to be a rule, or procedure to follow, right?” I stated. “Well, we’re not all on board yet” was his reply.

How can the “we” (a.k.a. next level of intelligence) not all be on board? What type of direction will us lesser folks be facing if the “we” don’t have the answers?

At this point I decided to go straight to the horse’s mouth, called our local planning department, and asked them the same basic question regarding the insulating of a basement wall, and the necessity or use of a vapor barrier and tape. That was two weeks ago. So far I’ve co-ordinated with two people, neither of them are familiar or confident enough in their interpretation of the new regulations to forward me an answer, and have as a result, differed my inquiries to the building inspection staff for further consultation.

Now when I call, in an attempt to speak with a human being, I get the answering service, which transfers me to a mail box, to which I leave a message received apparently by no one. This whole scenario reminds me of the movie Terminator 3 Judgement Day, whereby the engineers, planners, and architects working on this SB-12 proposal, have designed a system so complicated and so complex, that they’ve lost all control to a series of computers that will someday bury us all in mounds of fiberglass.

My real lack of understanding of the SB-12 document is in part due to the over use of the word “coefficient”, which in the document is often followed by a series of shapes and lines that appear to be more closely related to oriental calligraphy. When I look up “coefficient” in the dictionary it simply states ‘term used by those of higher learning, with there being no actual meaning’. Very strange, very strange indeed.

Next week, insulating your basement with Arnold Schwarzenegger. Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

Band aids are for cuts

File #182, case name “Moldy Band Aids ”, has a young couple searching for a mold resistant paint in order to protect their joists and plywood from mold.

The couple had just added a 400 sq. ft. four season sunroom, including a full height basement, onto their existing 1200 sq. ft. home. While in the freshly poured basement, they noticed mold growing on the 2×10 floor joists and plywood below the newly finished area above. Their intentions were to scrub off the mold, then paint the floor joists and underside of the plywood, creating a less desirable surface for this household menace to grow on.

Although their strategy to paint the joists and plywood wasn’t totally flawed, with there certainly being mold resistant paints and primers available, it was definitely a young person’s solution. Encouraging somebody who’s 60-plus to reach up and paint floor joists, providing them with the opportunity to revive some of those old shoulder joint pains, would be like convincing them to bungee jump.

As they were further explaining the situation, my thoughts were more directed towards what was causing this mold issue in the first place. They requesting my recommendation of paints or primers, was kind of like seeking my advice as to what size of pail would best remedy a leaky faucet.

Bandage solutions are for the young, because they have the energy to watch them fail, then do them all over again. When you get older, your goal is to do things once. My suggestion was to focus on the real issue, which is what’s causing the mold, as opposed to choosing the proper roller and angled paint brush.

Mold requires the same three elements for survival as us humans, them being air, food, and water. Eliminate any one of the three, and you will have solved the mold problem. Air, we all require, while food particulates floating around in the home’s atmosphere are going to be practically impossible to control. So, that leaves water. Upon further questioning, it was discovered that the basement area had yet to be heated, and was simply accessible through a doorway, whereby the finished area above was being serviced by a gas stove. The original 1200 sq. ft. home is being heated by the only unit the house has ever known, a 16-year-old gas furnace.

Solution? This newly poured basement is exuding gallons of moisture, which is no doubt feeding this thriving colony of mold. As a result, this couple has got to get some air circulation and heat into the basement. When I inquired as to the existence of a heat or air exchanger, the fellow thought that there was indeed a unit attached to the furnace, although its age was uncertain. When I inquired as to their plans on replacing the furnace, since their existing unit was certainly near the end of its life cycle, and was going to be asked to further handle 30 per cent more living space, the fellow assured me the unit was in good working order, and that there were no plans for a change.

“What about installing an air/heat exchanger in the new basement area, wouldn’t that solve the moisture issue?” the fellow questioned. Perhaps, but again, we’re talking an $800 band aid solution. Basically, the budget for this rather extensive renovation should have included a complete reconfiguration of the heating systems and ductwork by a HVAC (Heating, Cooling, and Air conditioning) contractor or engineer. What this home needs is a high efficiency furnace and HRV (Heat Recovery Ventilation) unit, along with the necessary ductwork to circulate heat, and draw air out of the new basement and living space above.

If you’re not sure as to the efficiency of a mechanical unit, or whether it needs replacement, consider the age and reliability of your machine in dog years. That big number should help in your decision to upgrade the mechanical services in your home.

Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

The attic as a tuque

Properly insulating the attic is an important part of home heating. It’s also definitely a do-it-yourself job. Postmedia Network

There are two types of tuque people — those persons with a mop full of hair who selectively wear tuques as a fashion statement, and the follicly challenged, who on a cold winter’s day, depend on this garment for their ultimate survival.

The tuque, for all its simplicity, is nevertheless an effective tool in guarding our heads from two of the basic characteristics of heat. These being that heat rises, and that heat naturally moves from hot to cold.

Therefore, understanding that a warm entity, such as your body, or your home, doesn’t absorb cold, but conversely loses heat, gives us a better understanding of the value of insulating your head, and our related topic of today, your home’s attic.

Now, what about the row of shirtless guys with painted letters on their chests that frequent -25 degree Celsius professional football games, why aren’t they freezing, you may ask? Unfortunately, the science of heat transfer cannot be altered by applying paint to one’s chest, nor can it be subdued for any length of time with the use of alcohol, hallucinogenic drugs, or the vocalizing of inspirational chants. With heat escaping their bodies in great volumes with every second that passes, these brave souls will have approximately a 10-minute window in which to get themselves on camera. If their moment of glory should pass, the boys will have some humbling choices. Either continue their shirtless crusade, and die like real men or, toss on their jackets and huddle up like a gang of emperor penguins. Regardless, shame and humility is in their future.

So, your home, like a lettered body up there in row #102, requires insulation, not so much to keep the cold out, but to keep the heat in. And, due to heat rising, and cool air sinking, properly sealing the space between living area and attic space becomes even more critical to home comfort and energy savings.

In today’s age of rising heating costs, a homeowner should be looking to insulate their attic floor with at least R-60 of thermal resistance. This would translate into layering the floor space with 18-20 inches of fiberglass pink batt insulation, or filling the area with 22-24 inches of Atticat blowing wool.

Insulating, or adding insulation to a home’s attic space is a very do it yourself project, with the greatest challenge to success being your ability to manoeuvre up through the ceiling’s 22 x 30 inch attic hatch. If you’re capable of achieving this semi acrobatic feat, have your local building supply dealer deliver a sheet of 5/8 inch spruce plywood (cut in half, providing two pieces of 2’ x 8’ walking planks) along with the insulation. The 5/8” plywood, placed diagonally or perpendicular to the truss joists, will allow you to safely navigate the attic floor, in order to place the batts or blow in the wool.

Don’t omit the plywood or skimp on a thinner sheeting. Sure footing is key to the success of any operation. With the truss joists providing 1-1/2 inches of footing, spaced at every 24 inches on center, while being somewhat hidden by any existing insulation, the chances of a fellow’s eligibility in entering a gender neutral washroom facility, increases twofold with every attempted step. Plus, the plywood can be further ripped into 12 inch strips, providing excellent shelving, or be used to create a deeper shaft around your attic hatch.

Before insulating, ensure that there are attic vents (24” x 48” raised foam shields) stapled and fitted in between each truss, that stretch down into the soffit. These vents are essential in preventing the insulation from blocking the cool air from being drawn up into the attic space.

Finally, invest in a sheet of 2 inch ridged insulation, then cut it to size and glue the pieces to the back of your attic hatch door, effectively insulating this last cold spot.

Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

What to dew

Properly insulating your home can reduce the amount of energy you use and save you money. Postmedia Network

Back in the olden days, when energy was cheap, the Habs were winning Stanley Cups, and our knee joints were well-oiled and pain-free, batt insulation was all we needed to keep our homes relatively cozy inside.

Then came the term “thermal bridging”, which enlightened us to the fact that lumber isn’t all that good an insulator. And, considering wall designs featured a stud at every 16 inches on center, the overall R-value of the wall was reduced significantly. A typical wall assembly would have contained either an R-12 or R-20 batt of insulation, depending on whether the wall had been framed with 2×4 or 2×6 lumber. The weakness in this system, energy wise, is the solid lumber, which accounts for about 10 per cent of the wall’s mass overall. With a thermal resistance value of about R-1 per inch, between every 15-1/2 inch span of warm, protective insulation, you had 1-1/2 inches of solid wood that would effectively allow the cold to migrate through to the inside, hence the term “thermal bridge”.

So, how can we as homeowners, and home builders, reduce the cold thermal bridge inadvertently created by the wood studding? The answer is Johns Manville’s polyiso ridged insulation board. With a thermal value of R-6 per inch, polyiso ridged sheeting can be installed directly over the wall studs, or over the OSB (oriented strand board) or plywood sheeting. The JM polyiso board is not a structural sheeting, therefore, a stud wall would have to be re-enforced with steel bracing if it were to be nailed directly to the lumber.

How thick should a homeowner consider going with their JM polyiso? Minimally 1 inch, with a 1-1/2 inch sheeting being better, and a 2 inch ridged board better yet.
Essentially, with the cost of heating being what it is, there’s no such thing as over-insulating an exterior wall. Therefore, a standard wall assembly in 2017 would begin with drywall on the inside, then a 6 mil. vapour barrier, wood studding with batt insulation in between, then a plywood sheeting, followed by JM polyiso, then a house wrap, ending with the customer’s choice of siding overtop. The 6 mil polyethylene vapour barrier is always installed on the warm side of a wall assembly, and effectively stops heat and moisture from entering the wall system.

Many people question why a plastic vapour barrier couldn’t be installed on the outside of an exterior wall as well. Or, be installed on the outside only, since that’s the side that faces the elements, and is the most likely side to let water in. Two elements dictate why we install a plastic vapour barrier on the inside wall only — our colder weather conditions, and the resulting dew point. In a perfect world, with a dry and air tight exterior wall cavity, having a vapour barrier on both sides would be the perfect scenario. Unfortunately, we can’t build a home in the same way we build a fridge, or beer cooler, at least not yet anyway. So, moisture already in the wall assembly, or entering the wall cavity by some other means, has got to be able to escape somewhere. In our Canadian climate, that’s best accomplished by having moisture dissipate towards the exterior.

Without a vapour barrier on the inside wall, heat and moisture would get into the insulation, then hit the dew point (the line where warm meets cold) somewhere in between the studs. An ice mass would then develop in the insulation, killing it’s thermal value, while creating all kinds of mold issues once things thawed out in the spring.

Installing a JM polyiso creates a band of continual insulation, and moves the dew point to about half way into its foam core, well out of the wall cavity. As a result, the thicker the JM ridged foam board, the further cold is kept from the home, and that’s a good thing.

Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard

Rock cousins

Today we’re talking brands of insulation, and where it should be installed in the home.

There are basically two kinds, or more common types of batt insulation used in the exterior walls of most homes, them being fiberglass and mineral wool.

Fiberglass batts, such as Owens Corning’s pink insulation, is not so surprisingly, made of woven fibers of glass. Mineral wool, also referred to as rock wool, is made of crushed volcanic rock, steel slag, and other bonding agents.

The most popular mineral wool insulation in today’s market is a product made by the Roxul Company. The Roxul name has become so recognized by homeowners and contractors alike, that people never specifically request a mineral wool insulation, but will simply ask for “Roxul” instead.

Is there a difference between a fiberglass and rock wool product? And, is one better than the other? Material wise, the pink insulation is made of glass, which comes from sand, whereby mineral wool is derived from crushed rock. So, these products are pretty close cousins.

Consistency wise, fiberglass pink is kind of like day old spaghetti, while Roxul has a density similar to toast. As a result, the pink fiberglass is somewhat stringy, and a little more difficult to cut. Plus, the glass fibers can break apart a bit if the material is over andled, which will cause an itchy reaction if you’ve made the mistake of not wearing pants, a long sleeve shirt, gloves, goggles, and a dust mask.

Roxul, on the other hand, cuts like . . . well toast, making it an easy product to fit around electrical outlets and ductwork. Roxul, like toast, is crumbly, or rather, a little more dusty than fiberglass. So again, completely covering your body with clothing, along with goggles and a dust mask, are all required equipment.

Choosing one over the other depends primarily on whether you like the Owens Corning Pink Panther logo, which for some may rekindle thoughts of the mischievous cartoon character, and some of the classic Inspector Clouseau movies starring Peter Sellers. Or, if you’re a fan of home repair reality television, whereby Roxul is certainly the favored batt product of the celebrity carpenters (Roxul must be feeding these guys all the insulation they can butter).

Price wise, fiberglass pink is significantly cheaper than Roxul. This could be due to actual costs of manufacturing, or the fact it costs a few more bucks to feed Mike Holmes, than it does paying royalties to MGM Studios.

Product wise, both are used primarily as insulation in the exterior walls of residential homes. Roxul has the added bonus of being fireproof, whereby a Roxul booth at a typical home and trade show will usually have the rather impressive feature of a piece of Roxul being blasted by a direct flame of heat. Regardless, after a total and complete loss to fire, never has a home been found with a pile of Roxul sitting amongst the rubble. In other words, you put enough heat on something, it’s going to burn, or melt. However, timing is everything when it comes to a fire in the home, whereby if the flame spread can be delayed by even a minute or two, lives can be spared. As a result, Roxul is a popular choice to use in walls separating the garage from the house, or in the floors of a home, separating the basement from the living space above. Fiberglass pink can also be used in this manner, with glass obviously having a relatively high threshold to heat. However, fiberglass pink doesn’t advertise itself as fireproof, and is primarily marketed for its value as an insulation. Besides being an essential product for the exterior wall, and an effective barrier to flame spread, insulation can be an excellent sound barrier. So, be sure to consider it for bathroom and bedroom dividing walls if you’re going to be building a new home or renovating this spring.

Good building.

As published by the Standard-Freeholder
Handyman's Hints Standard-Freeholder Cornwall Ontario by Chris Emard